The Non-Binding Offer

A professional man and woman shaking hands across a desk, symbolizing a formal agreement or partnership.

The agreement of key terms in the Letter of Intent (LOI) or the Non-Binding Offer (NBO) is a necessity. Until the NBO is signed, the seller can haggle and put forward their terms. Once it is signed, the ball is in the investor’s court, as the acquirer will more often than not require exclusive terms that prohibit the seller from negotiating with other bidders for a certain period. The LOI/NBO must specify, among other things, the price and the method of payment, as well as the methods of calculating the price adjustment; the scope and duration of the exclusivity clause; the non-binding nature of the terms; the remedies for breach of agreement, etc. A well-drafted Letter of Intent or Non-Binding Offer significantly reduces the time required to complete the transaction and increases the likelihood of successful closing.

The Role of the LOI/NBO

The primary role of the LOI/NBO is to clarify the terms under which the transaction will take place. It typically includes a range of critical details such as:

Price and Payment Methods:

The LOI/NBO specifies the agreed price for the transaction and the method of payment, such as cash, stock, or a combination of both. It may also outline any deferred payments, earnouts, or other financial components.

Exclusivity Clauses:

To ensure a fair transaction, the acquirer often requires exclusivity, preventing the seller from negotiating with other potential bidders for a defined period. This exclusivity clause helps the buyer focus on due diligence without worrying about competition.

Price Adjustment Mechanisms:

The LOI/NBO may contain clauses related to price adjustments based on certain conditions or due diligence findings. This allows for flexibility in case of unforeseen circumstances or discrepancies during the investigation phase.

Scope and Duration of the Agreement:

The LOI/NBO will outline the timeframe for the exclusivity period, the expected closing date, and any milestones that need to be achieved during the transaction process.

Non-Binding Nature of Terms:

Despite the structured nature of the LOI/NBO, it is crucial to clarify that the agreement is non-binding. This means that either party can walk away from the deal without legal repercussions if certain conditions are not met.

Remedies for Breach of Agreement:

Although non-binding, the LOI/NBO may contain remedies for breaches of specific terms, particularly those related to confidentiality or exclusivity.

The Importance of a Well-Drafted LOI/NBO

A well-drafted LOI/NBO can significantly streamline the transaction process and increase the likelihood of successful closing. It sets clear expectations for both parties, reducing the potential for misunderstandings or disputes during the due diligence and closing phases. Additionally, it provides a level of security for the acquirer, ensuring that they have a fair opportunity to evaluate the target company without interference from other bidders.

The LOI/NBO also serves as a foundation for further negotiation and development of definitive agreements. It allows both parties to explore the feasibility of the transaction, identify key issues, and determine if they can work together to achieve a successful outcome.


The Non-Binding Offer is a crucial step in the mergers and acquisitions process. By outlining key terms and establishing a framework for the deal, it paves the way for a smoother transaction and increases the chances of a successful closing. Properly drafting the LOI/NBO and ensuring that it covers all necessary aspects can save time, reduce risks, and ultimately contribute to a successful merger or acquisition.

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